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Урок 7

Подготовка к сочинению TOEFL iBT (Integrated and Independent Tasks)

РАЗДЕЛ 1

Мы продолжаем работу по подготовке к сочинению нового вида Integrated Writing Task. В уроке 6 мы рассматривали первый тип сочинения этого вида Casting Doubt on Points in a Reading Passage. В этом уроке мы рассмотрим второй тип, который определяется как Showing Support for Points in a Reading Passage.


2. Showing Support for Points in a Reading Passage

Для того чтобы успешно выполнить этот вид задания, нужно во время прослушивания академической лекции сосредоточиться на той информации, которая может дополнить или дать более подробное разъяснение фактам, которые вы почерпнули из прочитанного текста.

Ниже следуют типичные вопросы (задания) для этого типа эссе:
  - How does the information in the listening passage support the information presented in the reading passage?
  - How does the information in the listening passage expand on the information presented in the reading passage?
  - How does the information in the listening passage add to the ideas presented in the reading passage?
  - What further information does the listening passage provide to add to the information presented in the reading passage?
  - How is the information in the listening passage about... related to the ideas in the reading passage (on...)?



Структура сочинения. Типичные обороты и выражения.

  • Введение = Introduction
      - In this set of materials, the reading passage discusses an attempt to deal with the problem of... , and the listening passage explains why this attempt was not a successful one.
      - In this set of materials, the reading passage describes a type of... , and the listening passage provides an extended example of this type of...
      - In the lecture the professor/teacher/lecturer made several points about...
      - The professor/teacher/lecturer argues that...
      - The points made by the professor/teacher/lecturer agree with the reading.
      - In fact, the examples used by the professor/teacher/lecturer support the reading.

  • Основная часть сочинения (один-два абзаца) = Body Paragraph(s)
      - The first point that the professor/teacher/lecturer uses to support the reading is...
      - According to the professor/teacher/lecturer...
      - This point supports the reading, which holds (полагает/считает) that...
      - The point made by the professor/teacher/lecturer supports the reading because...
      - Furthermore, the professor/teacher/lecturer bolsters (поддерживает) the reading by stating that (+ point #2)...
      - The professor/teacher/lecturer claims that (+ detail for point #2)...
      - This point agrees with the reading, which contends (утверждает/заявляет) that...
      - The point shows the truth of the reading because...

  • Заключение = Conclusion
      - In conclusion/In sum/To sum up/In the final analysis...
      - To sum up, the points made in the lecture support the reading. The points from the lecture demonstrate that the fact/idea discussed/described (the information presented) in the reading is valid (веский, обоснованный).

Sample Response
Integrated Writing Task


In this set of materials, the reading passage discusses the factors that influence workers' job satisfaction, and the listening passage expands on this topic providing several examples. In the lecture the professor makes many points about the motivation and needs of workers. The professor argues that a small work group (not a big impersonal system) fills important social and emotional needs of workers. This agrees with the reading, which states that workers consider social and personal features of the workplace very important. In fact, the examples used by the professor support the reading.

The first point that the professor makes is that workers deserve to participate in making decisions. He claims that if workers have a voice in the decisions, especially, within the work group, they not only will be motivated to work more efficiently but also will take more pride in their work. The point made by the professor supports the reading in that the most satisfying jobs are those with a high level of autonomy and with minimal supervision. Also, the lecture states that workers feel angry and alienated when they have no voice. This point agrees with the reading, which contends that alienation is a sense of powerlessness.

Furthermore, the lecture bolsters the reading by claiming that workers' social and personal needs go beyond their economic concerns. This supports the point in the reading that traditional economic incentives such as pay and promotions are near the bottom of the list of what workers consider important.

In the final analysis, the points made in the lecture support the idea of the reading that such social and personal factors as a good ambience in the workplace and a good rapport with co-workers, as well as job autonomy create high work motivation.


Примечание: В этом сочинении больше слов, чем требуется (291 слово), поскольку оно является примером того, как нужно использовать соответствующие обороты и грамматические конструкции в его структуре. Экзаменационные требования определяют количество слов в пределах 150 - 225. На экзамене введение можно сделать более кратким, так как в вашем распоряжении будет только 20 минут:
In this set of materials, the reading passage discusses the factors that influence workers' job satisfaction, and the listening passage expands on this topic providing several examples that support the reading.



РАЗДЕЛ 2

В этом уроке мы также представляем образец сочинения на предложенную тему, которое требует выражения вашего личного мнения. Такое сочинение относится ко второму виду письменного задания на экзамене TOEFL iBT. Подробное его рассмотрение вы найдёте в материале следующего урока.

Основные требования к сочинению на предложенную тему.
  1. Требуемый объём сочинения - приблизительно 300 слов. Время написания - 30 минут.
  2. Сочинение имеет следующую структуру: введение, основную (1-3 абзаца) и заключительную части.
  3. Между всеми частями сочинения должна быть взаимосвязь; для этого необходимо употреблять вводные слова и обороты (transition words; см. следующие уроки).
  4. В сочинении нужно чётко ответить на поставленный вопрос и уметь аргументировано изложить свою точку зрения.
  5. Сочинение должно показать, что вы владеете различными грамматическими структурами и обладаете достаточным словарным запасом.

TOEFL iBT SAMPLE ESSAY
Independent Task


There are many different kinds of advertising (on the radio, on television, in newspapers, in magazines, and on billboards). In your opinion, which one of these kinds of advertising is the most effective? Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

All advertising media share a common goal: to reach as many consumers as possible and convince them to buy a certain product. They all employ similar strategies to achieve this objective, but some are more effective than others. In my opinion, television is the most effective because of several advantages it has over other advertising media.

For one thing, I believe television advertising has a greater power to engage its audience than print and radio media have. While print appeals only to the sense of sight and radio only to hearing, television appeals to both sight and hearing simultaneously. Moreover, a television advertisement is a moving film and therefore is quite successful at presenting the illusion of reality. The characters in a television commercial seem alive. For these reasons, we are probably more likely to pay close attention to a television commercial than to a radio commercial or an ad in a magazine.

Secondly, the advantage of television advertising over other advertising media is related to the costs involved in producing television commercials. Because of the extremely high cost of advertising on television, the companies which can afford the expense can also afford to do intensive market research. In other words, they can study market trends and buying habits in order to target a very specific consumer audience.

Finally, of all the advertising media, television reaches the widest audience. With a television in nearly every household and the average person watching several hours of television per day, television presents an enormous possibility of exposing a product to a large number of people.

In conclusion, the advantages of television advertising make it by far the most effective advertising medium. Since the marketing industry is very competitive, even the smallest advantage can give a company an edge over its competitors. Thus, companies with a large advertising budget undoubtedly prefer television to other forms of advertising media.



В следующем уроке мы продолжим работу над сочинением.



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