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Урок 9

Подготовка к сочинению TOEFL iBT (Transition Words)

Мы продолжаем работу по подготовке к сочинению на экзамене TOEFL iBT. В этом уроке мы представляем список слов и выражений, используемых для введения новой информации, перечисления, а также привлечения дополнительных аргументов/фактов. Такие слова по-английски называются transition words или discourse markers (discourse - рассуждение, высказывание по какому-либо вопросу). Они являются "вехами", "указателями" при переходе одной части рассуждения к другой, обеспечивая таким образом логическую последовательность изложения мыслей и четкость структуры сочинения. Чаще всего такие слова и выражения стоят в начале предложения/абзаца сочинения.

В наших последующих уроках мы продолжим знакомство со словами и выражениями, необходимыми для того, чтобы сделать логическое заключение, привести контраргумент, изложить какой-либо пункт рассуждений более подробно и т.д.

Примечание: Этот материал актуален для всех четырёх разделов экзамена TOEFL iBT. Например, в разделе Reading один из 13 типов вопросов к тексту Coherence Questions (Black Square Questions - TOEFL CBT) построен на знании таких слов и выражений. Это задание состоит в том, что нужно вставить дополнительную информацию в одно из выделенных мест в тексте с учётом того, является ли эта информация противопоставлением, заключением и т.д. В разделе Listening, когда вы будете слушать длинные диалоги и лекции, эти слова действительно будут служить для вас "вехами", которые помогут лучше запомнить информацию. В разделе Speaking для устного высказывания вам также понадобятся эти слова и выражения (исключая лишь те, которые характерны только для письменного стиля).


  1. Words and phrases to organize points chronologically (to introduce a series of reasons, ideas, remarks, etc)

    • to start/begin with; for one thing - прежде всего; начать с того, что; для начала;
    • first and foremost - в первую очередь;
    • first(ly)/first of all; second(ly); third(ly);
    • in the first/second/third place;
    • for another thing - кроме того; во вторых;
    • the main thing is that...; another thing is that...;
    • the main reason (why...) is that...; another reason (why...) is that...;
    • last but not least - последнее, но не менее важное;
    • lastly/last of all/finally - наконец; в заключение;

    Note: firstly, secondly... is more formal than first, second...

    Eg: The aim of the test was first and foremost to give confidence to the students.

    Eg: There are several reasons why students may prefer to live in dorms: first(ly), it is cheaper to live in a dorm than to rent an apartment, second(ly), students do not have to spend much time to get to school because dorms are usually located on campus, and lastly/last of all/finally/last but not least, students may have a more active social life.

    Eg: There are two main reasons why these countries should not involve themselves with nuclear energy at the present time. In the first place/For one thing, they have ample supplies of both oil and hydroelectric energy from which to generate electricity. Secondly/For another thing, ...

  2. Words and phrases to indicate the addition of a new point or introduce a related topic

    • in addition - в дополнение;
    • what is more/more than that/furthermore (formal)/moreover (more formal) - более того; кроме того;
    • by the same token - лишним доказательством этого является то, что; по той же причине;
    • above all/on top of that - в довершение всего;
    • as well as - так же (как); не только..., но; в дополнение; помимо;
    • alongside/in parallel with... - наряду с...;
    • besides/apart from... - кроме, помимо...;
    • besides - к тому же (particularly when adding a negative idea);
    • similarly/equally/likewise - подобным образом;
    • a word must be said about... - следует сказать/упомянуть о...;
    • it is important to note that... - важно заметить/обратить внимание на то, что...;
    • especially as/the more so, as... - тем более, что...

    Eg: In addition to (having) a BA degree in Psychology, he also has an MBA. (MBA - Master of Business Administration)

    Eg: (from a letter of recommendation)... In addition, her education in Speech Communication and work as a teacher has provided a great deal of public speaking and presentation experience. What is more/On top of that, she is particularly good in a fast-paced environment with challenges and with co-workers as enthusiastic as herself.

    Eg: The main reason why an international effort is needed to preserve the world's energy resources is that individual nations, like people, will act according to their short-term motives and self-interest. Another reason is that this appears to be a problem international in nature which is difficult to solve independently and thus requires global cooperation. By the same token, efforts of individual nations to solve other international problems, for example, drug trafficking, have proven largely futile, because efforts have not been internationally based.

    Eg: Alongside his many other responsibilities, he now has to be in charge of staff training.

    Eg: Although I feel that life might be less interesting if we knew everything that would happen in the future, there are certain details about my own life which I am nearly dying of curiosity to find out. ... Apart from/ Besides my personal life, I would be very interested to know what the world will be like in the next century, and in the next millenium. (TOEFL writing question #178)

    Eg: Now it is generally believed that professional sport affects health in a negative way. Besides, violence, greed, and corruption are clearly the antitheses of the athletic ideal. (TOEFL writing question # 162)

    Eg: It is important to note that professional athletes often finish their careers not because they are of retirement age, but because they are physically damaged. (TOEFL writing question # 162)

    Eg: Physical labor can exhaust the body very quickly. Similarly/Equally/Likewise, excessive study can rapidly reduce mental powers.

    Eg: Many parents believe that children should help with chores around the house at an early age, while others disagree. Before I tackle this question, a word must be said about parenting strategies. (TOEFL writing question #134)

    Eg: as well as
      - He was a real scholar as well as a great composer. (= He is not only a great composer, but also a real scholar.)
      - He is intelligent as well as good-looking. (= He is not only good-looking, but also intelligent.)
      - She composes music as well as plays the piano. (= She not only plays the piano but also composes music.)

    Note: In BrE, when they put a verb after as well as, they most often use the -ing form. (см. Swan M. Practical English Usage, Oxford, 1997)
      - She sings as well as playing the piano.
      - As well as doing well on the exams, she wrote a very good term paper.

One-sided argument essay (Independent Task)

Essay #179: What are some qualities of a good parent? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

There are many different kinds of parents in this world each with their own distinct set of traits but there are traits that seem to be common for every good parent. To be a good parent one has to be caring and loving as well as fair and demanding. And there are many other good qualities to choose from. In my opinion, the best qualities of parents include patience and understanding, honesty and responsibility.

For one thing, parents with patience and understanding values take the time to listen to their children's problems no matter how busy they are. What is more, good parents should be enthusiastic about their children's concerns. Enthusiasm in parenting involves taking an active interest in their child's life. Taking an "active interest" does not mean they have to be overbearing but being tolerant and energetic in the child's interest's and hobbies. On top of that, understanding parents take their children as they are and let them learn from their own mistakes. Thus, children are permitted to explore the world on their own with the proper guidance from their parents.

Another important quality of a good parent is honesty. Honest parents provide their children with good moral values and give their children a realistic view of the world. They set a good example and have the ability to be consistent and strict when necessary. They listen seriously to their children when they ask questions and guide them toward the right answers.

Last but not least, good parents should bear moral responsibility for their children. It means that parents, by their own behavior, should set high moral standards for their children to follow.

In conclusion, there are a great number of qualities that have the potential of benefiting a child. To isolate any particular quality from the other is practically impossible. Children need to be exposed to many different qualities, including the ones mentioned above, to develop into the best unique and well-rounded adult possible.

Продолжение работы над сочинением в следующем уроке.

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